Let’s start by debunking the myth. Feminism is not about women claiming their dominance over men, or the suppression of “male” rights.
Feminism is the advocacy of women rights on the ground of equality of sexes.
It has had multiple movements all with this desired goal to establish this equality in all fields of our society.
First Wave, The Suffrage Movement
Started in the late 1800s, a time when their roles encompassed travelling between the kitchen and the room, producing on average seven children, Conner (unknown). Their opportunities they were fighting for were centred around basic citizenship such as
The Right To Vote
Own property without a man
The perception of these women were deemed Suffragettes. This patronising name was to give off the perception of these women’s inadequacy to fulfil their household duties, unattractive single women with no man in their lives.
Started in 1960s and continued until the 90s. In a time of growing self consciousness during the anti-war and civil rights movement. They looked to achieve rights concerning
Sexuality and Reproductive Rights
Here it began to focus on social equality regardless of sex and encompassing women of all sexualities and races.
they called for a change in the representation of women in the media in order to alter mass perception of submission.
Began in the mid 1990s and led by the Generation Xers, Encyclopaedia Britannica (Unknown) and was informed by most-colonial and post-modern thinking.
Using nontraditional methods of protest one of this waves lasting impacts was due to humour and was named the Guerrilla Girls.
Under a tradition of mediocrity and oppression of talent young french film critiques defied this practice and broke away to indulge in their own artists endeavours, leading to The French New Wave with its discernible characteristics it craftsmanship is owed to the birth of a belief that the director holds the fundamental rights to a film’s creative presentation in which the director’s style should leave a lasting imprint through his career, this being named the Auteur Theory.
This notion of the director being the sole creative visionary and force of a film was one of the main establishments which was birthed form the French New Wave and was popularised as Auteur Theory by an American film critique, Andrew Sarris in 1962 in his article “Notes on the Auteur Theory”, Schudel (2012). Auteur Theory believes that a director must carry out distinguishable traits of stylistic elements and themes throughout their films to be considered a true Auteur, having left a lasting imprint on all their works and thus it left the films success or failure in the hands of the director for their visionary execution as Truffaut said,“
there are no good or bad movies, only good or bad directors.”,
Filmmaker IQ (2015).
But of course where there is a belief there is controversy. Many people have criticised this theory for many reason such as the absurdity to give merit to a sole person in the filmmaking industry, which is a collaborative space and therefore it is the visual style of works of others.
Counter arguing this we could say that the New Wavers wanted to convey the idea that a great director, a true auteur, understood all aspects of the filmmaking process and therefore could impose a personal style among each of them, as Hess (1973) states in his example of cinematography, “Gregg Toland was responsible for much of the visual style of Citizen Kane…however it was Welles who insisted on that look”.
Pauline Kale, a film critique and rival of Sarris argued that a consistent style should not be needed and that a film should be judge by it’s own merit, Filmmaker IQ (2015). In this way we could see how a consequence of this theory could play on a director as it forces them to hone into one particular style of art and does not give them artistic freedom of experimentation thus limiting their creative credibility, she also stated that it could lead to
“a director obtaining any script and shoving pieces of style up it’s plot”
where the problematic nature of this would be that a director is then forced to revert to his former records to create his mark even if it does not aid the narrative. Countering this we can look at the previous examination of the New Wavers past of mediocrity and mettré-en-scéne of their film industry to understand why the auteur was a critical component. The auteur theory fought against the notion of a director being but a tool in the studio system which is why it argued that a director had to place his personal essence onto a script to defy exalting the screenwriter such a previous generations.
The French New Wave brought with it many innovations to filmmaking due to its irreverent founders discovering and urging the theory of the director being the single and most influential component in the crafting of a film, that the director should have a recurring and unique style and themes throughout their films to establish their understanding of their art medium and thus abolish their previous film culture of under appreciated oppression with constricted vision.
Filmmakers IQ. 2015. The Origins of Auteur Theory. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=nfHnuZqtV68. ( Accessed 6 Nov. 2017).
Schudel, M. 2012. Andrew Sarris, critic who promoted ‘auteur theory’ of film, dies at 83. The Washington Post. [online] Available at: https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/movies/ andrew-sarris-critic-who-promoted-auteur-theory-of-film-dies-at-83/2012/06/20/ gJQA7foNrV_story.html?utm_term=.be1bc515d27b. (Accessed 6 Nov. 2017).
Culture Jamming is a form of protest which challenges mass culture’s indoctrination of consumerism due to corporate elites by exposing ulterior motivates of capitalist intent. Culture Jamming involves creating parodies of brands through the use of art by attacking their identity, showing an alternative perspective of a brand’s authenticity and ethics. It is important for participants to bring a disruptions of corporate semiotics and not to further advertise the brand and therefore as Harold (2004) states
“ revenge is a science, pranking is an art.”
The term “jamming’ was originally used to describe the illegal disruption of radio broadcast between fellow hams, Mark (unknown), and so the socio-poltical, media critical band , Negativland, coined the term “ Culture Jamming” in 1984 for their exposure of media-centric semiotics, challenging the established media “broadcasted” information.
Culture Jamming is seen as guerrilla semiotics as its objectives include sabotaging the process of communication between brands and their audience, Carducci (2006). Brands do not only sell a product, they sell a lifestyle and therefore have created an identity in which they market for their clients to buy into.
By creating transparency through their constructed identity Culture Jamming does not only disrupt, but sends out message through skilful manipulation of corporate symbols from monolithic power structures to expose their control in discerning our way of life, Harold (2004).
We can look at this through ESSO vs GRENPEACE
Esso is a trading name for Exxon Mobile Corporations and it affiliated oil companies. Which have said to be a sign of quality and a symbol of service, Esso (unknown).
This can be seen in their advertisement which exclaims their power and efficiency.
Greenpeace, an NGO which strives for environmental care created this to undermine Esso’s identity by exposing their desire for capitalistic gains regardless of ethics towards environmental sustainability and conservation.
Esso responded by suing Greenpeace for infringing copyrights and reputable damage states Cammaerts (2007) , in which Greenpeace won and called for action for the public to subvert the company.
It gives transparency to hidden aspects of corporate ethics
It can lead to individuals changing their beliefs and ideals about our society
due to awareness of issues being spread
It is an easy and cost effective method of protesting
,it can be done via multiple mediums and due to social networking sites, it has created a faster means for people to voice their concerns
such as our example with GreenPeace
Humour might trivialise the issue
instead of bringing forth the true intent of the message and action for change
It could stand to further advertise the brand
Culture Jamming is an innovative means to protest against the norm of ignorance from the patriarchal capitalist society in which we operate. Offering an artistic method to expel this it disrupts the culture of consumerism through giving transparency to the hidden activities and agendas of corporations via dismembering their own symbols to produce their true meanings.
GreenPeace. unknown. Culture jamming the Esso logo at the entrance to a large station near the Germany-Luxembourg border in Wasserbillig.[ online] Available at: http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/multimedia/photos/culture-jamming-the-esso-logo/. (Accessed 23 Oct. 2017)
Global Peace and Conflict. 2012. Modern Day Slavery. [online] Available at: https://globalpeaceandconflict.wordpress.com/2012/02/23/nike-and-modern-day-slavery/. (Accessed 23 Oct. 2017).
Logo Database. Unknown. Unknown. [online] Available at: http://logodatabases.com/esso-logo.html/esso-logo-3. ( Accessed 23 Oct. 2017).
Through our daily lives we follow a certain conduct that has been set before us, abiding by these rules as they are reinforced by the media and individuals in which we have come to place our trust in the hierarchy of our society. A mode of Ideological Imposition would be Legitimacy, and it is through Milgram’s Experiment we can note how individuals conform to obedience through the justification of a superior power.
Who decides who lives or dies? Most would say God, but as our rapid need to consume and destroy that which is around us evolves into an unstoppable force of inhumanity as humans have taken up the mantle of the divine.
Spe-cies-ism (noun): the assumption of human superiority leading to the exploitation of animals.
watch the full documentary at: http://www.nationearth.com
It’s no secret the media has invaded our lives and has become a culture which we cannot separate ourselves from, shaping and reshaping our reality via our communication to and fro. This form of dependence has lead to our own perception of our world and the people who encompass it which are shaped by the media’s presentation of them, leading to a narrow point of view of different cultures. Bombarded with one perspective, we begin to accept it as truth and thus stereotypes dominate our outlook based off a singular source of information we accept due to our dependence on the media.
The poet Guante beautifully exposes and advocates against the stereotypes that boys and men are pressured to be every day.
Button Poetry. 2013. Gaunte-Ten Responses To The Phrase “Man-Up”. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFoBaTkPgco. (Accessed 16 Oct. 2017).
Robin Williams, notorious for his inspiring character both on screen and off, bringing wisdom and joy to audiences across the world was only seen in this manner, only projected by the media as eternal sunshine, his depression and suicide on the 11 August 2014,( Hollywood Reporter, 2014) shocked the world as the harsh reality of our mirage exposed our blinded perception of a world beyond the media.
Goalcast. 2016. The Most Inspiring Robin William pseech-Make Your Life Spectacular. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PuPYIfcSz_Y. (Accessed 11 Oct. 2017).
Youn, S. 2014. The Hollywood Reporter. Robin Williams: Autopsy Confirms Death by Suicide. [online] Available at: http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/robin-williams-autopsy-confirms-death-746194. (Accessed 11 Oct. 2017).